References

Agmatine
 
Keynan, Oryet al. “Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc-associated Radiculopathy. An Open-label, Dose-escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.”Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)vol. 11,3 (2010): 356-68. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00808.x

Shopsin, B. (2013). The clinical antidepressant effect of exogenous agmatine is not reversed by parachlorophenylalanine: A pilot study.Acta Neuropsychiatrica,25(2), 113-118. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2012.00675.x

Zomkowski, Andrea D E et al. “Putrescine produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test and in the tail suspension test in mice.”Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatryvol. 30,8 (2006): 1419-25. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.05.016
 
Alpha-Glycerylphosphorycholine (Alpha-GPC)
AlphaSize


Alberto Muratorio, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Angelo Nuti, Noè Battistini, Stefano Passero, Vittoria Caruso, Barbara Batani, Alberto Baroni, Federico Mayer, Tiziana Sorbi, Attilio Franciosi, Gianni Moro, Luciano Agostini, Massimo Piccirilli, Diana Scatozza, A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine,Current Therapeutic Research, Volume 52, Issue 5,1992, Pages 741-752, ISSN 0011-393X.

De Jesus Moreno Moreno, Maria. “Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.”Clinical therapeuticsvol. 25,1 (2003): 178-93. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(03)90023-3
 
Ziegenfuss, T., Landis, J. & Hofheins, J. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise.J Int Soc Sports Nutr5,P15 (2008). 
 
Ashwagandha

Sensoril is a branded ingredient that is more concentrated than KSM-66 (5% withanolides) or other Ashwagandha sources. It provides 10% withanolides).

Andrade, C et al. “A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera.”Indian journal of psychiatryvol. 42,3 (2000): 295-301.

Chandrasekhar, K et al. “A prospective, randomized double
-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.”Indian journal of psychological medicinevol. 34,3 (2012): 255-62. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106022

Cooley, Kieran et al. “Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974.”PloS onevol. 4,8 e6628. 31 Aug. 2009, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006628
 
Langade, Deepak et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study.”Cureusvol. 11,9 e5797. 28 Sep. 2019, doi:10.7759/cureus.5797
 
Lopresti, Adrian L et al. “An investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.”Medicinevol. 98,37 (2019): e17186. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000017186
 
Pingali, Usharani et al. “Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants.”Pharmacognosy researchvol. 6,1 (2014): 12-8. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.122912
 
Salve, Jaysing et al. “Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.”Cureusvol. 11,12 e6466. 25 Dec. 2019, doi:10.7759/cureus.6466
 
Astragalus Membranaceus and Panax Notoginseng
AstraGin

Ahmed, Mohammed S et al. “Treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy with the herb Astragalus membranaceus.”American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundationvol. 50,6 (2007): 1028-32. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.07.032

Chen, Chun-Chung et al. “Chinese Herb Astragalus membranaceus Enhances Recovery of Hemorrhagic Stroke: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study.”Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAMvol. 2012 (2012): 708452. doi:10.1155/2012/708452
 
Gao, Xing-hua et al. “Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceussaponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice.”Inflammationvol. 34,1 (2011): 10-21. doi:10.1007/s10753-010-9202-7
 
Huang, Xiaoping et al. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguozhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medicavol. 35,16 (2010): 2187-91.Tan, Hua et al.Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicinevol. 8,5 (2010): 448-52. doi:10.3736/jcim20100508
 
Xuejiang, W et al. “Antioxidant potential of qizhu tang, a chinese herbal medicine, and the effect on cerebral oxidative damage after ischemia reperfusion in rats.”Biological & pharmaceutical bulletinvol. 24,5 (2001): 558-63. doi:10.1248/bpb.24.558

Zwickey, Heather et al. “The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study.”Phytotherapy research : PTRvol. 21,11 (2007): 1109-12. doi:10.1002/ptr.220

Blueberry Fruit Extract
 
Boespflug, Erin L et al. “Enhanced neural activation with blueberry supplementation in mild cognitive impairment.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 21,4 (2018): 297-305. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2017.1287833
Bowtell, Joanna L et al. “Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.”Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolismevol. 42,7 (2017): 773-779. doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0550

Hein, Sabine et al. “Systematic Review of the Effects of Blueberry on Cognitive Performance as We Age.”The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciencesvol. 74,7 (2019): 984-995. doi:10.1093/gerona/glz082
Krikorian, Robert et al. “Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults.”Journal of agricultural and food chemistryvol. 58,7 (2010): 3996 - 4000. doi:10.1021/jf9029332

Miller, Marshall G et al. “Dietary blueberry improves cognition among older adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.”European journal of nutritionvol. 57,3 (2018): 1169-1180. doi:10.1007/s00394-017-1400-8

Rimando, Agnes M et al. “Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.”Journal of agricultural and food chemistryvol. 52,15 (2004): 4713-9. doi:10.1021/jf040095e

Rimando, A.M. and Barney, D.L. (2005). RESVERATROL AND NATURALLY OCCURRING ANALOGUES INVACCINIUMSPECIES. Acta Hortic. 680, 137-143DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.680.20

Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar et al. “Development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method based on the use of cyclodextrins as mobile phase additives to determine pterostilbene in blueberries.”Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciencesvol. 879,15-16 (2011): 1091-7. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.03.025

Stevenson, David and Scalzo, Jessica. ‘Anthocyanin Composition and Content of Blueberries from Around the World’. 1 Jan. 2012 : 179 –189.

Whyte, Adrian R et al. “A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Low Dose Enhanced Wild Blueberry Powder and Wild Blueberry Extract (ThinkBlue™) in Maintenance of Episodic and WorkingMemory in Older Adults.”Nutrientsvol. 10,6 660. 23 May. 2018, doi:10.3390/nu10060660

Bifidobacterium Longum

Allen, A P et al. “Bifidobacterium longum 1714 as a translational psychobiotic: modulation of stress, electrophysiology and neurocognition in healthy volunteers.”Translational psychiatryvol. 6,11 e939. 1 Nov. 2016, doi:10.1038/tp.2016.19

Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines et al. “Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients WithIrritable Bowel Syndrome.”Gastroenterologyvol. 153,2 (2017): 448-459.e8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.003

Vitellio, Paola et al. “Effects ofBifidobacterium longumandLactobacillus rhamnosuson Gut Microbiota in Patients with Lactose Intolerance and Persisting Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.”Nutrientsvol. 11,4 886. 19 Apr. 2019, doi:10.3390/nu11040886

Wang, Huiying et al. “Bifidobacterium longum 1714™ Strain Modulates Brain Activity of Healthy Volunteers During Social Stress.”The American journal of gastroenterologyvol. 114,7 (2019): 1152-1162. doi:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000203

Lactobacillus Acidophilus

Choi, Juli et al. “Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Lactobacillus plantarumIncrease BDNF Expression in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons and Produce Antidepressant-like Effects in Mice.”Experimental neurobiologyvol. 28,2 (2019): 158-171. doi:10.5607/en.2019.28.2.158

Halawa, Mohamed R et al. “The Gut Microbiome, Lactobacillus acidophilus; Relation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.”Current diabetes reviewsvol. 15,6 (2019): 480-485. doi:10.2174/1573399815666190206162143

Zinatizadeh, Nazi et al. “POTENTIAL PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN PATIENTS WITH POLYPS OR COLORECTAL CÂNCER.”Arquivos de gastroenterologiavol. 55,4 (2018): 407-411. doi:10.1590/S0004-2803.201800000-87

Lactobacillus Brevis

Fang, Fang et al. “Characterization of a Lactobacillus brevis strain with potential oral probiotic properties.”BMC microbiologyvol. 18,1 221. 22 Dec. 2018, doi:10.1186/s12866-018-1369-3

Jiang, Xinpeng et al. “Lactobacillus brevis 23017 Relieves Mercury Toxicity in the Colon by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Through the Interplay of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Cascades.”Frontiers in microbiologyvol. 9 2425. 12 Oct. 2018, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02425

Lavender Oil
 
Kasper, Siegfried et al. “Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.”International clinical psychopharmacologyvol. 25,5 (2010): 277-87. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32833b3242

Uehleke, B et al. “Phase II trial on the effects of Silexan in patients with neurasthenia, post-traumatic stress disorder or somatization disorder.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 19,8-9 (2012): 665-71. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.02.020

Wang, Dong et al. “Neuroprotective activity of lavender oil on transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice.”Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)vol. 17,8 9803-17. 15 Aug. 2012, doi:10.3390/molecules17089803

Woelk, H, and S Schläfke. “A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 17,2 (2010): 94-9. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.006

Lemon Balm Extract
 
Cases, Julien et al. “Pilot trial of Melissaofficinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.”Mediterranean journal of nutrition and metabolismvol. 4,3 (2011): 211-218. doi:10.1007/s12349-010-0045-4

Dimpfel, W et al. “Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers.”European journal of medical researchvol. 9,9 (2004): 423-31.

Kennedy, D O et al. “Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.”Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacologyvol. 28,10 (2003): 1871-81. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300230

Kennedy, D O et al. “Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm).”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 72,4 (2002): 953-64. doi:10.1016/s0091-3057(02)00777-3

Kennedy, David O et al. “Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm).”Psychosomatic medicinevol. 66,4 (2004): 607-13. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000132877.72833.71

Melatonin

Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo et al. “Meta-analysis: melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disorders.”PloS onevol. 8,5 e63773. 17 May. 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063773

Hardeland, Rüdiger et al. “Melatonin.”The international journal of biochemistry & cell biologyvol. 38,3 (2006): 313-6. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.08.020

Lemoine, Patrick et al. “Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effects.”Journal of sleep researchvol. 16,4 (2007): 372-80. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00613.x

Luthringer, Remy et al. “The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia.”International clinical psychopharmacologyvol. 24,5 (2009): 239-49. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32832e9b08

van Geijlswijk IM, Mol RH, Egberts TC, Smits MG. Evaluation of sleep, puberty and mental health in children with long-term melatonin treatment for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Jul;216(1):111-20. doi: 10.1007/s00213-011-2202-y. Epub 2011 Feb 22. PMID: 21340475; PMCID: PMC3111733.

Panax Ginseng
Asian Panax Ginseng Root Extract 

Kennedy, D.O. Phytochemicals for Improving Aspects of Cognitive Function and Psychological State Potentially Relevant to Sports Performance. Sports Med 49,39–58 (2019).

Kennedy, D O et al. “Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteers.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 4,5 (2001): 399-412. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2001.11747376

Kennedy, D O et al. “Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults.”Physiology & behaviorvol. 75,5 (2002): 739-51. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(02)00665-0

Kennedy, D O et al. “Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng.”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 79,3 (2004): 401-11. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2004.07.014

Kennedy, D O et al. “Electroencephalograph effects of single doses of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng in healthy young volunteers.”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 75,3 (2003): 701-9. doi:10.1016/s0091-3057(03)00120-5

Kennedy D, Reay J, Scholey A. Effects of 8 weeks administration of KoreanPanax ginsengextract on the mood and cognitive performance of healthy individuals. J Ginseng Res. 2007;31(1):34–43.

Reay, Jonathon L et al. “Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.”Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)vol. 19,4 (2005): 357-65. doi:10.1177/0269881105053286

Reay, Jonathon L et al. “Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.”Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)vol. 20,6 (2006): 771-81. doi:10.1177/0269881106061516

Reay, Jonathon L et al. “Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults.”Human psychopharmacologyvol. 25,6 (2010): 462-71. doi:10.1002/hup.113

Scholey, Andrew et al. “Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.”Psychopharmacologyvol. 212,3 (2010): 345-56. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1964-y

Sünram-Lea, S. I.andBirchall, R.andWesnes, K. A.andPetrini, O.(2005)The effect of acute administration of400mg of Panax ginseng on cognitive performance and mood in healthy young volunteers.Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, 3 (1). pp. 65-74. ISSN 1540 - 7535

Ziemba, A W et al. “Ginseng treatment improves psychomotor performance at rest and during graded exercise in young athletes.”International journal of sport nutritionvol. 9,4 (1999): 371-7. doi:10.1123/ijsn.9.4.371

Phosphatidylserine (PS)
SerinAid

Crook, T et al. “Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease.”Psychopharmacology bulletinvol. 28,1 (1992): 61-6.
 
Engel, R R et al. “Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type.”European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacologyvol. 2,2 (1992): 149-55. doi:10.1016/0924-977x(92)90025-4

Hirayama, S et al. “The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.”Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Associationvol. 27 Suppl 2 (2014): 284-91. doi:10.1111/jhn.12090
 
Jäger, Ralf et al. “The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance.”Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutritionvol. 4 23. 4 Dec. 2007, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-23
 
Jorissen, B L et al. “The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 4,2 (2001): 121-34. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2001.11747356
 
Kato-Kataoka, Akito et al. “Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.”Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutritionvol. 47,3 (2010): 246-55. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-62
 
Monteleone, P et al. “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men.”European journal of clinical pharmacologyvol. 42,4 (1992): 385-8. doi:10.1007/BF00280123
 
Parker, Adam G et al. “The effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exercise.”Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutritionvol. 8 16. 21 Oct. 2011, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-8-16
Schreiber, S et al. “An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatmentof age-related cognitive decline.”The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciencesvol. 37,4 (2000): 302-7.
 
Vakhapova, Veronika et al. “Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.”Dementia and geriatric cognitive disordersvol. 29,5 (2010): 467-74.

Rhodiola Rosea (standardized to 3% rosins and1% Salidroside)                                                          
Cropley, Mark et al. “The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms.”Phytotherapy research : PTRvol. 29,12 (2015): 1934-9. doi:10.1002/ptr.5486
 
Darbinyan, V et al. “Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 7,5 (2000): 365-71. doi:10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80055-0
 
De Bock, Katrien et al. “Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance.”International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolismvol. 14,3 (2004): 298-307. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.298
 
Edwards, D et al. “Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study.”Phytotherapy research : PTRvol. 26,8 (2012): 1220-5. doi:10.1002/ptr.3712
 
Kasper, Siegfried, and Angelika Dienel. “Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial withRhodiola roseaextract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms.”Neuropsychiatric disease and treatmentvol. 13 889-898. 22 Mar. 2017, doi:10.2147/NDT.S120113
 
Lekomtseva, Yevgeniya et al. “Rhodiola rosea in Subjects with Prolonged or Chronic Fatigue Symptoms: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial.”Complementary medicine researchvol. 24,1 (2017): 46-52. doi:10.1159/000457918
 
Ross, Stephanie Maxine. “Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5), Part I: a proprietary root extract of Rhodiola rosea is found to be effective in the treatment of stress-related fatigue.”Holistic nursing practicevol. 28,2 (2014): 149-54. doi:10.1097/HNP.0000000000000014
 
Shevtsov, V A et al. “A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 10,2-3 (2003): 95-105. doi:10.1078/094471103321659780
 
Saccharomyces BoulardiiCzerucka, Dorota, and Patrick Rampal. “Diversity ofSaccharomyces boulardiiCNCM I-745 mechanisms of action against intestinal infections.”World journal of gastroenterologyvol. 25,18 (2019): 2188-2203. doi:10.3748/wjg.v25.i18.2188
 
Sivananthan, Kavitha, and Andreas Munk Petersen. “Review of Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option in IBD.”Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicologyvol. 40,6 (2018): 465-475. doi:10.1080/08923973.2018.1469143
 
Stier, Heike, and Stephan C Bischoff. “Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 beeinflusst das darmassoziierte Immunsystem” [Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 influences the gut-associated immune system].MMW Fortschritte der Medizinvol. 159,Suppl 5 (2017): 1-6. doi:10.1007/s15006-017-9802-3
 
Theanine
 
Lu, Kristy,Gray, Marcus A.,Oliver, Chris,Liley, David T.,Harrison, Ben J.,Bartholomeusz, Cali F.,Phan, K. Luan,andNathan, Pradeep J.(2004).The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans.Human Psychopharmacology19(7)457-465.
 
Kimura, Kenta et al. “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.”Biological psychologyvol. 74,1 (2007): 39-45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006
 
Unno, Keiko etal. “Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress.”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 111 (2013): 128-35. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.004
 
Jorissen, B L et al. “The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 4,2 (2001): 121-34. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2001.11747356
 
Kato-Kataoka, Akito et al. “Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.”Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutritionvol. 47,3 (2010): 246-55. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-62