Braintree Nutrition™ Science

Alpha-Glycerylphosphorycholine (Alpha-GPC)

  • Alberto Muratorio, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Angelo Nuti, Noè Battistini, Stefano Passero, Vittoria Caruso, Barbara Batani, Alberto Baroni, Federico Mayer, Tiziana Sorbi, Attilio Franciosi, Gianni Moro, Luciano Agostini, Massimo Piccirilli, Diana Scatozza, A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine,Current Therapeutic Research, Volume 52, Issue 5,1992, Pages 741-752, ISSN 0011-393X.
  • De Jesus Moreno Moreno, Maria. “Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.”Clinical therapeuticsvol. 25,1 (2003): 178-93. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(03)90023-3
  • Ziegenfuss, T., Landis, J. & Hofheins, J. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise.J Int Soc Sports Nutr5,P15 (2008).  
  • Andrade, C et al. “A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera.”Indian journal of psychiatryvol. 42,3 (2000): 295-301.
  • Chandrasekhar, K et al. “A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.”Indian journal of psychological medicinevol. 34,3 (2012): 255-62. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106022
  • Cooley, Kieran et al. “Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974.”PloS onevol. 4,8 e6628. 31 Aug. 2009, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006628 
  • Langade, Deepak et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study.”Cureusvol. 11,9 e5797. 28 Sep. 2019, doi:10.7759/cureus.5797
  • Lopresti, Adrian L et al. “An investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.”Medicinevol. 98,37 (2019): e17186. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000017186 
  • Pingali, Usharani et al. “Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants.”Pharmacognosy researchvol. 6,1 (2014): 12-8. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.122912
  • Salve, Jaysing et al. “Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.”Cureusvol. 11,12 e6466. 25 Dec. 2019, doi:10.7759/cureus.6466
Astragalus Membranaceus and Panax Notoginseng
  • Ahmed, Mohammed S et al. “Treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy with the herb Astragalus membranaceus.”American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundationvol. 50,6 (2007): 1028-32. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.07.032
  • Chen, Chun-Chung et al. “Chinese Herb Astragalus membranaceus Enhances Recovery of Hemorrhagic Stroke: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study.”Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAMvol. 2012 (2012): 708452. doi:10.1155/2012/708452
  • Gao, Xing-hua et al. “Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceussaponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice.”Inflammationvol. 34,1 (2011): 10-21. doi:10.1007/s10753-010-9202-7
  • Huang, Xiaoping et al. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguozhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medicavol. 35,16 (2010): 2187-91.Tan, Hua et al.Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicinevol. 8,5 (2010): 448-52. doi:10.3736/jcim20100508
  • Xuejiang, W et al. “Antioxidant potential of qizhu tang, a chinese herbal medicine, and the effect on cerebral oxidative damage after ischemia reperfusion in rats.”Biological & pharmaceutical bulletinvol. 24,5 (2001): 558-63. doi:10.1248/bpb.24.558
  • Zwickey, Heather et al. “The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study.”Phytotherapy research : PTRvol. 21,11 (2007): 1109-12. doi:10.1002/ptr.220
Blueberry Fruit Extract
  • Boespflug, Erin L et al. “Enhanced neural activation with blueberry supplementation in mild cognitive impairment.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 21,4 (2018): 297-305. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2017.1287833
  • Bowtell, Joanna L et al. “Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.”Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolismevol. 42,7 (2017): 773-779. doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0550
  • Hein, Sabine et al. “Systematic Review of the Effects of Blueberry on Cognitive Performance as We Age.”The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciencesvol. 74,7 (2019): 984-995. doi:10.1093/gerona/glz082
  • Krikorian, Robert et al. “Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults.”Journal of agricultural and food chemistryvol. 58,7 (2010): 3996 - 4000. doi:10.1021/jf9029332
  • Miller, Marshall G et al. “Dietary blueberry improves cognition among older adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.”European journal of nutritionvol. 57,3 (2018): 1169-1180. doi:10.1007/s00394-017-1400-8
  • Rimando, Agnes M et al. “Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.”Journal of agricultural and food chemistryvol. 52,15 (2004): 4713-9. doi:10.1021/jf040095e
  • Rimando, A.M. and Barney, D.L. (2005). RESVERATROL AND NATURALLY OCCURRING ANALOGUES INVACCINIUMSPECIES. Acta Hortic. 680, 137-143DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.680.20
  • Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar et al. “Development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method based on the use of cyclodextrins as mobile phase additives to determine pterostilbene in blueberries.”Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciencesvol. 879,15-16 (2011): 1091-7. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.03.025
  • Stevenson, David and Scalzo, Jessica. ‘Anthocyanin Composition and Content of Blueberries from Around the World’. 1 Jan. 2012 : 179 –189.
  • Whyte, Adrian R et al. “A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Low Dose Enhanced Wild Blueberry Powder and Wild Blueberry Extract (ThinkBlue™) in Maintenance of Episodic and WorkingMemory in Older Adults.”Nutrientsvol. 10,6 660. 23 May. 2018, doi:10.3390/nu10060660
Bifidobacterium Longum
  • Allen, A P et al. “Bifidobacterium longum 1714 as a translational psychobiotic: modulation of stress, electrophysiology and neurocognition in healthy volunteers.”Translational psychiatryvol. 6,11 e939. 1 Nov. 2016, doi:10.1038/tp.2016.19
  • Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines et al. “Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients WithIrritable Bowel Syndrome.”Gastroenterologyvol. 153,2 (2017): 448-459.e8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.003
  • Vitellio, Paola et al. “Effects ofBifidobacterium longumandLactobacillus rhamnosuson Gut Microbiota in Patients with Lactose Intolerance and Persisting Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.”Nutrientsvol. 11,4 886. 19 Apr. 2019, doi:10.3390/nu11040886
  • Wang, Huiying et al. “Bifidobacterium longum 1714™ Strain Modulates Brain Activity of Healthy Volunteers During Social Stress.”The American journal of gastroenterologyvol. 114,7 (2019): 1152-1162. doi:10.14309/ajg.0000000000000203
Lactobacillus Acidophilus
  • Choi, Juli et al. “Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Lactobacillus plantarumIncrease BDNF Expression in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons and Produce Antidepressant-like Effects in Mice.”Experimental neurobiologyvol. 28,2 (2019): 158-171. doi:10.5607/en.2019.28.2.158
  • Halawa, Mohamed R et al. “The Gut Microbiome, Lactobacillus acidophilus; Relation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.”Current diabetes reviewsvol. 15,6 (2019): 480-485. doi:10.2174/1573399815666190206162143
  • Zinatizadeh, Nazi et al. “POTENTIAL PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN PATIENTS WITH POLYPS OR COLORECTAL CÂNCER.”Arquivos de gastroenterologiavol. 55,4 (2018): 407-411. doi:10.1590/S0004-2803.201800000-87
Lactobacillus Brevis
  • Fang, Fang et al. “Characterization of a Lactobacillus brevis strain with potential oral probiotic properties.”BMC microbiologyvol. 18,1 221. 22 Dec. 2018, doi:10.1186/s12866-018-1369-3
  • Jiang, Xinpeng et al. “Lactobacillus brevis 23017 Relieves Mercury Toxicity in the Colon by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Through the Interplay of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Cascades.”Frontiers in microbiologyvol. 9 2425. 12 Oct. 2018, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02425
Lavender Oil
  • Kasper, Siegfried et al. “Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.”International clinical psychopharmacologyvol. 25,5 (2010): 277-87. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32833b3242
  • Uehleke, B et al. “Phase II trial on the effects of Silexan in patients with neurasthenia, post-traumatic stress disorder or somatization disorder.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 19,8-9 (2012): 665-71. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.02.020
  • Wang, Dong et al. “Neuroprotective activity of lavender oil on transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice.”Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)vol. 17,8 9803-17. 15 Aug. 2012, doi:10.3390/molecules17089803
  • Woelk, H, and S Schläfke. “A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 17,2 (2010): 94-9. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.006
Lemon Balm Extract
  • Cases, Julien et al. “Pilot trial of Melissaofficinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.”Mediterranean journal of nutrition and metabolismvol. 4,3 (2011): 211-218. doi:10.1007/s12349-010-0045-4
  • Dimpfel, W et al. “Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers.”European journal of medical researchvol. 9,9 (2004): 423-31.
  • Kennedy, D O et al. “Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.”Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacologyvol. 28,10 (2003): 1871-81. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300230
  • Kennedy, D O et al. “Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm).”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 72,4 (2002): 953-64. doi:10.1016/s0091-3057(02)00777-3
  • Kennedy, David O et al. “Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm).”Psychosomatic medicinevol. 66,4 (2004): 607-13. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000132877.72833.71
  • Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo et al. “Meta-analysis: melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disorders.”PloS onevol. 8,5 e63773. 17 May. 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063773
  • Hardeland, Rüdiger et al. “Melatonin.”The international journal of biochemistry & cell biologyvol. 38,3 (2006): 313-6. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.08.020
  • Lemoine, Patrick et al. “Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effects.”Journal of sleep researchvol. 16,4 (2007): 372-80. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00613.x
  • Luthringer, Remy et al. “The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia.”International clinical psychopharmacologyvol. 24,5 (2009): 239-49. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32832e9b08
  • Van Geijlswijk IM, Mol RH, Egberts TC, Smits MG. Evaluation of sleep, puberty and mental health in children with long-term melatonin treatment for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Jul;216(1):111-20. doi: 10.1007/s00213-011-2202-y. Epub 2011 Feb 22. PMID: 21340475; PMCID: PMC3111733.
Panax Ginseng
Asian Panax Ginseng Root Extract 
  • Kennedy, D.O. Phytochemicals for Improving Aspects of Cognitive Function and Psychological State Potentially Relevant to Sports Performance. Sports Med 49,39–58 (2019).
  • Kennedy, D O et al. “Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteers.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 4,5 (2001): 399-412. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2001.11747376
  • Kennedy, D O et al. “Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults.”Physiology & behaviorvol. 75,5 (2002): 739-51. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(02)00665-0
  • Kennedy, D O et al. “Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng.”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 79,3 (2004): 401-11. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2004.07.014
  • Kennedy, D O et al. “Electroencephalograph effects of single doses of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng in healthy young volunteers.”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 75,3 (2003): 701-9. doi:10.1016/s0091-3057(03)00120-5
  • Kennedy D, Reay J, Scholey A. Effects of 8 weeks administration of KoreanPanax ginsengextract on the mood and cognitive performance of healthy individuals. J Ginseng Res. 2007;31(1):34–43.
  • Reay, Jonathon L et al. “Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.”Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)vol. 19,4 (2005): 357-65. doi:10.1177/0269881105053286
  • Reay, Jonathon L et al. “Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.”Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)vol. 20,6 (2006): 771-81. doi:10.1177/0269881106061516
  • Reay, Jonathon L et al. “Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults.”Human psychopharmacologyvol. 25,6 (2010): 462-71. doi:10.1002/hup.113
  • Scholey, Andrew et al. “Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.”Psychopharmacologyvol. 212,3 (2010): 345-56. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1964-y
  • Sünram-Lea, S. I.andBirchall, R.andWesnes, K. A.andPetrini, O.(2005)The effect of acute administration of400mg of Panax ginseng on cognitive performance and mood in healthy young volunteers.Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, 3 (1). pp. 65-74. ISSN 1540 - 7535
  • Ziemba, A W et al. “Ginseng treatment improves psychomotor performance at rest and during graded exercise in young athletes.”International journal of sport nutritionvol. 9,4 (1999): 371-7. doi:10.1123/ijsn.9.4.371
Phosphatidylserine (PS)
  • Crook, T et al. “Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease.”Psychopharmacology bulletinvol. 28,1 (1992): 61-6.
  • Engel, R R et al. “Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type.”European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacologyvol. 2,2 (1992): 149-55. doi:10.1016/0924-977x(92)90025-4
  • Hirayama, S et al. “The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.”Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Associationvol. 27 Suppl 2 (2014): 284-91. doi:10.1111/jhn.12090
  • Jäger, Ralf et al. “The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance.”Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutritionvol. 4 23. 4 Dec. 2007, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-23
  • Jorissen, B L et al. “The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 4,2 (2001): 121-34. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2001.11747356
  • Kato-Kataoka, Akito et al. “Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.”Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutritionvol. 47,3 (2010): 246-55. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-62
  • Monteleone, P et al. “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men.”European journal of clinical pharmacologyvol. 42,4 (1992): 385-8. doi:10.1007/BF00280123
  • Parker, Adam G et al. “The effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exercise.”Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutritionvol. 8 16. 21 Oct. 2011, doi:10.1186/1550-2783-8-16
  • Schreiber, S et al. “An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatmentof age-related cognitive decline.”The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciencesvol. 37,4 (2000): 302-7.
  • Vakhapova, Veronika et al. “Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.”Dementia and geriatric cognitive disordersvol. 29,5 (2010): 467-74.
Rhodiola Rosea (standardized to 3% rosins and1% Salidroside)                                      
  • Cropley, Mark et al. “The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms.”Phytotherapy research : PTRvol. 29,12 (2015): 1934-9. doi:10.1002/ptr.5486
  • Darbinyan, V et al. “Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 7,5 (2000): 365-71. doi:10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80055-0
  • De Bock, Katrien et al. “Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance.”International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolismvol. 14,3 (2004): 298-307. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.298
  • Edwards, D et al. “Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study.”Phytotherapy research : PTRvol. 26,8 (2012): 1220-5. doi:10.1002/ptr.3712
  • Kasper, Siegfried, and Angelika Dienel. “Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial withRhodiola roseaextract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms.”Neuropsychiatric disease and treatmentvol. 13 889-898. 22 Mar. 2017, doi:10.2147/NDT.S120113
  • Lekomtseva, Yevgeniya et al. “Rhodiola rosea in Subjects with Prolonged or Chronic Fatigue Symptoms: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial.”Complementary medicine researchvol. 24,1 (2017): 46-52. doi:10.1159/000457918
  • Ross, Stephanie Maxine. “Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5), Part I: a proprietary root extract of Rhodiola rosea is found to be effective in the treatment of stress-related fatigue.”Holistic nursing practicevol. 28,2 (2014): 149-54. doi:10.1097/HNP.0000000000000014
  • Shevtsov, V A et al. “A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work.”Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacologyvol. 10,2-3 (2003): 95-105. doi:10.1078/094471103321659780 
Saccharomyces Boulardii
  • Czerucka, Dorota, and Patrick Rampal. “Diversity ofSaccharomyces boulardiiCNCM I-745 mechanisms of action against intestinal infections.”World journal of gastroenterologyvol. 25,18 (2019): 2188-2203. doi:10.3748/wjg.v25.i18.2188
  • Sivananthan, Kavitha, and Andreas Munk Petersen. “Review of Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option in IBD.”Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicologyvol. 40,6 (2018): 465-475. doi:10.1080/08923973.2018.1469143
  • Stier, Heike, and Stephan C Bischoff. “Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 beeinflusst das darmassoziierte Immunsystem” [Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 influences the gut-associated immune system].MMW Fortschritte der Medizinvol. 159,Suppl 5 (2017): 1-6. doi:10.1007/s15006-017-9802-3
Tart Cherry Extract
  • Chai, Sheau C et al. “Effects of Tart Cherry Juice on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Older Adults.” Nutrients vol. 11,2 228. 22 Jan. 2019, doi:10.3390/nu11020228.
  • Levers, K., Dalton, R., Galvan, E. et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 13, 22 (2016).
  • Karen M Keane, Trevor W George, Costas L Constantinou, Meghan A Brown, Tom Clifford, Glyn Howatson, Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus Cerasus L.) consumption on vascular function in men with early hypertension, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 103, Issue 6, June 2016, Pages 1531–1539.
  • Banderet LE, Lieberman HR. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Apr;22(4):759-62.
  • Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Res Bull. 1999 Jan 15;48(2):203-9.
  • Banderet LE, Lieberman HR. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Apr;22(4):759-62.
  • Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res Bull. 1994;33(3):319-23.
  •  Lu, Kristy,Gray, Marcus A.,Oliver, Chris,Liley, David T.,Harrison, Ben J.,Bartholomeusz, Cali F.,Phan, K. Luan,andNathan, Pradeep J.(2004).The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans.Human Psychopharmacology19(7)457-465.
  • Kimura, Kenta et al. “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.”Biological psychologyvol. 74,1 (2007): 39-45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006
  • Unno, Keiko etal. “Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress.”Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behaviorvol. 111 (2013): 128-35. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.004
  • Jorissen, B L et al. “The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.”Nutritional neurosciencevol. 4,2 (2001): 121-34. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2001.11747356
  • Kato-Kataoka, Akito et al. “Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.”Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutritionvol. 47,3 (2010): 246-55. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-62